Glycemic Index and Diabetes
What is the glycemic index?
The glycemic index, or GI, measures how a carbohydrate-containing food
raises blood glucose. Foods are then ranked based on how they compare
to a reference food. The reference food is either glucose or
white bread. A high GI food raises blood glucose more than a food with
a medium or low GI.
To use the GI as a meal planning guide involves eating
foods that have either a low or a medium glycemic index.. If
you eat a food with a high GI, you can combine it with low GI
foods to help balance the meal.
Examples of carbohydrate-containing foods with a low GI
include dried beans and legumes (like kidney beans and lentils), all
non-starchy vegetables and some starchy vegetables, most fruit, and
many whole grain breads and cereals (like barley, whole wheat bread,
rye bread, and all-bran cereal). Meats and fats don’t have a GI because
they do not contain carbohydrate.
What affects the GI of a food?
Fat and fiber tend to lower the GI of a food. As a general rule, the
more cooked or processed a food, the higher the GI; however, this is
not always true.
Below are a few specific examples of other factors that
can affect the GI of a food:
- Ripeness and storage time – the more ripe a fruit or
vegetable is, the higher the GI
- Processing – juice has a higher GI than whole fruit;
mashed potato has a higher GI than a whole baked potato, stone ground
whole wheat bread has a lower GI than whole wheat bread.
- Cooking method: how long a food is cooked (al dente
pasta has a lower GI than soft-cooked pasta)
- Variety: converted long-grain white rice has a lower
GI than brown rice but short-grain white rice has a higher GI than
Other things to consider if using the GI:
- The GI value represents the type of carbohydrate in a
food but says nothing about the amount of carbohydrate typically eaten.
You still need to consider portion size for managing blood
glucose and for losing or maintaining weight.
- Many nutritious foods have a higher GI than foods
with little nutritional value. For example, oatmeal has a higher GI
than chocolate. Use of the GI needs to be balanced with basic nutrition
principles of variety for healthful foods and moderation of foods with
Is the GI a better tool than carbohydrate
There is no one diet or meal plan that works for everyone with
diabetes. The important thing to remember is to follow a meal plan that
to personal preferences and lifestyle and helps achieve goals for blood
glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, blood pressure, and
Research shows that both the amount and the type of
carbohydrate in food affect blood glucose levels. Studies also show
that the total amount of carbohydrate in food, in general, is a
stronger predictor of blood glucose response than the GI.
Based on the research, for most people with diabetes,
the first tool for managing blood glucose is some type of carbohydrate
counting. Balancing total carbohydrate intake with physical activity
and diabetes pills or insulin (if needed) is key to managing blood
Because the type of carbohydrate does have an affect on
blood glucose, using the GI may be helpful in “fine-tuning” blood
glucose management. In other words, combined with carbohydrate
counting, it may provide an additional benefit for achieving blood
glucose goals for individuals who can and want to put extra effort into
monitoring their food choices.
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